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Admission to drug treatment and rehabilitation centers to resume with strict health and safety protocols amid the pandemic

Adjusting to the “New Normal,” the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) adopted infection prevention and control protocol to be followed upon the resumption of admissions and activities in drug treatment and rehabilitation facilities nationwide.

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DDB issues policy to ensure availability of physicians authorized to assess substance use disorder amid the pandemic

The Dangerous Drugs Board, in its recent special meeting, approved a Resolution extending the validity of provisional accreditation granted to physicians authorized to conduct Drug Dependency Examination (DDE) for a period of two years.

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DDB refutes heavy-handed approach in UN-OHCHR drug war report

The Philippine Government takes exception to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Report, especially as it relates to Philippine efforts to effectively address the pervasive menace and destructive effects of illegal drugs in the country.

The Philippines calls on the OHCHR to foster a positive spirit of cooperation with States Parties, with the view of releasing an unbiased report based on facts, legitimate figures and continuing consultations with key anti-drug agencies in the Philippines.

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Statement of the DDB on the change of leadership in the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

The Dangerous Drugs Board welcomes the assumption of new PDEA Director General Wilkins Villanueva after Malacañang released his appointment signed last 22 May 2020. Incoming DG Villanueva has been a steadfast partner of DDB even during his early years as career officer of PDEA. DDB has involved him in many of its anti-drug efforts particularly in policy formulation and strategy development aspects which helped craft many of its inter-agency priorities all these years. Recognizing him as the 7th Director-General of PDEA, DDB intends to engage more closely and deepen the collaboration with his leadership noting that he will become an Ex-Officio Member of the Board.

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DDB Eases the Use of Prescription Forms for Dangerous Drugs

The Dangerous Drugs Board now allows the use of ordinary prescription for medical preparations containing dangerous drugs.

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DDB advocates for the use of electronic prescription for dangerous drugs medication

The Dangerous Drugs Board appeals to doctors, pharmacists, and drug store personnel to consider the use of electronic prescription for medicines included in the list of dangerous drugs as the whole country is under a State of Calamity due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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DDB, SDA Church hold program to update health directors on the Philippine Anti-Illegal Drugs Strategy (PADS) and board regulations

The Dangerous Drugs Board, in collaboration with the Southern Asia-Pacific Division of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, convenes Luzon-based health directors of the religious group to update them on the Philippine Anti-Illegal Drugs Strategy (PADS) and relevant DDB regulations.

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DDB clarifies: CBD is not cannabis per se

The Dangerous Drugs Board would like to clarify that marijuana use remains illegal in the country for both recreational and medical use. The use of Cannabidiol, however, is being considered to be allowed for treatment of certain rare forms of epilepsy like Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet Syndrome.

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DDB, DOST-FNRI launch dietary manuals for Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs)

The Dangerous Drugs Board and the Department of Science and Technology-Food and Nutrition Research Institute, officially launch three dietary manuals to be used in Treatment and Rehabilitation Centers (TRCs) in the Philippines.

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REPORTED CASES BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND GENDER
(Facility Based)*
CY 2014
 
TYPE OF ADMISSION MALE FEMALE GRAND TOTAL
No. % No.  % No. %
NEW ADMISSION 3,116 70.95 272 6.19 3,388 77.14
RE-ADMISSION 733 16.69 39 0.89 772 17.58
OUT-PATIENT 211 4.80 21 0.48 232 5.28
TOTAL 4,060 92.44 332 7.56 4,392 100.00

* Total Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

 

PROFILE OF DRUG ABUSERS
(Facility Based)*
CY 2014


 AGE : Mean age of 30 years
 SEX : Ratio of male to female 12:1
 CIVIL STATUS : Single 49.07%
 STATUS OF EMPLOYMENT : Unemployed 47.59%
 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT : College Level 29.83%
 ECONOMIC STATUS : Average Monthly Family Income Php 15,423
 PLACE OF RESIDENCE : Urban (Specifically NCR 45.56%)
 DURATION OF DRUG - TAKING : More than six (6) years
 NATURE OF DRUG - TAKING : Poly drug use**
 DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE :
        Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu) Cannabis (Marijuana)
        Inhalants (Contact Cement Adhesive)


* Residential and Out-Patient Facilities
** Poly drug users - abuse of more than one (1) drug

 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
CY 2014


Based on the reports submitted by twenty-nine (29) residential and two (2) non-residential treatment and rehabilitation facilities, there were a total of 4,392 admissions reported in the year 2014. Of this number, 3,388 were admitted for the first time, 772 were relapsed or re-admitted cases either in the same or different facility and 232 were reported to have sought treatment to an out-patient facility.

Ninety-two percent (92.44%) of the admitted cases were males and almost eight percent (7.56%) were females. The ratio of male to female is 12:1.

Those who belong to the 30-34 age group comprised most of the admitted cases with twenty percent (20.24%), followed by those who were in the 40 and above bracket with nineteen percent (18.78%) and 25-29 age group with eighteen percent (17.78%). The average age is 30 years old. The youngest was 9 years old and the oldest was 78 years old.

Almost half of the admitted cases were single (49.07%), while thirty-three percent (33.31%) were married. Fourteen percent (14.46%) reported to have live-in partners and the remaining three percent (3.17%) were either separated, widow/er or divorced.

Based on the educational attainment, thirty percent (29.83%) of the center clients comprised those who have reached college level, followed by those who reached high school with twenty-five percent (24.68%) and those who finished high school at sixteen percent (15.73%).

Most of the admitted cases belong to the 5,999.00 and below income group with twenty-three percent (22.52%). The average monthly family income among center clients is PhP 15,423.00.

Of the total admission, forty-eight percent (47.59%) were unemployed, twenty-seven percent (26.73%) were workers/employees, eleven percent (11.43%) were businessman/self-employed, 8 percent (7.65%) were OSY and four percent (4.12%) were students.

Forty-six percent (45.56%) of the reported cases were residing in the National Capital Region (NCR) prior to their rehabilitation, while sixteen percent came from both
Region 4-A (16.46%) and Region 3 (16.39%).

As to the age when the client first tried to use drugs, forty-eight percent (47.79%) of the reported cases belong to the 15-19 age group. Half of the reported cases (50.30%) have taken drugs 2 to 5 times a week while twenty-one percent (21.20%) have it on a daily basis.


Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu) remains to be the primary drug of abuse among center clients with ninety-one percent (91.23%) of the total admission, followed by Cannabis (Marijuana) with thirty-six percent (35.77%). Both Inhalants (contact cement adhesive) and Benzodiazepines (Diazepam) users/abusers were reported at two percent (1.68% and 1.64% respectively).

There was a large increase by 34 percent (34.48%) of admission from the previous year and the reasons for these increase may be brought about by the following:

a) continuous effort of the government especially the local government unit in the combat against drug abuse through monitoring and assessment. They made sure that there are drug treatment facility which are available and accessible in every regions of the country;
b) love and support of the family in the treatment, rehabilitation and recovery of their loved ones who were hooked into drugs. Drug dependents voluntarily submit themselves for treatment and rehabilitation in either government or private facility knowing that their families were behind them and
c) drug treatment and rehabilitation workers tried their best to improve their programs, methodologies, facilities and services. In-house seminars and dialogues were conducted to better serve those who need interventions.

PROFILE OF DRUG ABUSERS
(Facility Based)*
CY 2013

     AGE : Mean age of  30 years
     SEX : Ratio of male to female 13:1
     CIVIL STATUS : Single 50.52%
     STATUS OF EMPLOYMENT : Unemployed  42.74%
     EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT : College Level 32%
     ECONOMIC STATUS : Average Monthly Family Income Php 15,671
     PLACE OF RESIDENCE : Urban (Specifically NCR  51.29%)
     DURATION OF DRUG - TAKING : More than six (6) years
     NATURE OF DRUG - TAKING : Poly drug use**
     DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE :
                                        Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu)
                                        Cannabis (Marijuana)
                                        Inhalants (Contact Cement Adhesive)


  *  Residential and Out-Patient Facilities
**  Poly drug users -  abuse of more than one (1) drug


REPORTED CASES BY TYPE OF ADMISSION AND GENDER
(Facility Based)*
CY 2013

TYPE OF ADMISSION  MALE FEMALE  GRAND TOTAL 
 No.  %  No.  No.  %
 NEW ADMISSION  2,430  74.40  188  5.76  2,618  80.16
 RE-ADMISSION  428  13.10  18  0.55  446  13.66
 OUT-PATIENT  169  5.17  33  1.01  202  6.18
 TOTAL  3,027 92.68   239  7.32  3,266  100.00

*  Total Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
CY 2013


A total of 3,266 admissions were reported for the year under review.  Of this number, 2,618 were first time admissions, 446 were relapsed cases or re-admitted either in the same or different facility and 202 had sought treatment to an out-patient facility. These cases were based from the reports submitted by thirty-one (31) residential and one (1) out-patient facilities nationwide.  

Around ninety-three percent (92.68%) of the admitted cases were males and seven percent (7.32%) were females. The ratio of male to female is 10:1.

Of the total admission, both age groups of 30-34 and 40 and above reported at more than nineteen percent (19.38% and 19.35%)  while more than seventeen percent (17.64%) were those in the 25-29 age bracket.  The average age is 30 years old.

Half of the admitted cases were single (50.52%), while thirty-three percent (32.61%) were married. Seventeen percent (16.87%) reported to have live-in partners or separated, widow/er and divorced.
 
Based on the educational attainment, thirty-two percent (32%) of the center clients comprised those who have reached college level, followed by those who reached high school with twenty-five percent (24.56%) and who finished high school at fifteen percent (15.06%).

The average monthly family income among center clients is P 15,671.  The lowest monthly income was reported to be five hundred pesos (P 500).

Of the total admission from various treatment facilities, more than forty percent (42.74%) were unemployed, twenty-seven percent (26.55%) were workers/employees, seventeen percent (16.78%) were businessman/self-employed and the rest were OSY and students with almost 14 percent (13.93%).

As to the area of residence, fifty-one percent (51.29%) were residing in the National Capital Region (NCR) prior to their admission to rehabilitation.  Seventeen percent (16.84%) came from Region IV-A, followed by Region III with fourteen percent (14.45%).  

Sixty-three percent (63.17%) of the clients reported that peers/friends were their primary source of drugs and thirty-one percent (30.77%) were pushers.  

As to drug of use, eighty-three percent (83.50%) reported methamphetamine hydrochloride (shabu) as their drugs/substances of abuse, followed by Cannabis (marijuana, brownies, seeds, hashish) with twenty eight percent (28.02%) and inhalants specifically contact cement adhesive (rugby) with three percent (3.18%).  Other drugs/substances of abuse include solvent, cocaine, benzodiazepines, MDMA (ecstasy),  nalbuphine hydrochloride (nubain), cough/cold preparations and ketamine.

There was an increase in admission from 2012 to 2013 by nineteen percent (19.02%). The reasons to this increase may be attributed to the following: the anti-drug abuse council of the local government units has become active in the anti-drug campaign in their localities; drug dependents go for voluntary confinement because the parents/guardians became supportive of them; rehabilitation programs and methodology were improved and the awareness of the people have increased on anti-drugs laws because of proper dissemination of information and the media.  

PROFILE OF DRUG ABUSERS
(Facility Based)
CY 2011

AGE : Mean age of 29 years
SEX : Ratio of male to female 9:1
CIVIL STATUS : Single 51.94%
STATUS OF EMPLOYMENT : Unemployed 35.16%
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT : College Level 30.23%
ECONOMIC STATUS : Average Monthly Family Income Php 15,818.10
PLACE OF RESIDENCE : Urban (Specifically NCR 48.42%)
DURATION OF DRUG - TAKING : More than six (6) years
NATURE OF DRUG - TAKING : Poly drug use**
DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE :
                                         Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu)
                                         Cannabis (Marijuana)
                                         Inhalants (Contact Cement Adhesive)

*Residential and Out-Patient Facilities
**Poly drug users - abuse of more than one (1) drug

REPORTED CASES BY GENDER
(Facility Based)*
CY 2011

                                                   MALE                FEMALE         GRAND TOTAL
TYPE OF ADMISSION No. % No. % No. %
NEW ADMISSION 2,148  70.66  246  8.09  2,394  78.75 
RE-ADMISSION  410 13.49  15  0.49  425  13.98 
OUT-PATIENT  190  6.25  31  1.02  221  7.27 
TOTAL  2,748  90.39  292  9.61  3,040  100.00 

* Total Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

DRUG ABUSE TREND: 2011 ANALYSIS

       For the year 2011, thirty (30) residential treatment and three (3) outpatient facilities reported to the Integrated Drug Abuse Data and Information Network (IDADIN). These facilities reported a total admission of 3,040 drug cases. Of this number, 78.75% or 2,394 were new admission, 13.98% or 425 were relapse cases and 7.27% or 221 were referrals from outpatient facilities.

       A 10.75% increase was recorded from previous year. The increase may be attributable to the intensified advocacy program done by the government to convince families that those who have drug problems need to undergo treatment and rehabilitation. On the other hand, the increase on the arrests of users based on the intensified operations conducted by the law enforcement on pushers/users
may also have contributed to the increase of admission in the treatment and rehabilitation facilities

* Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

 
MOST COMMONLY USED/ABUSED DRUGS/SUBSTANCES
(Facility Based)*
CY 2011
DRUGS USED / ABUSED NEW ADMISSION RE-ADMISSION OUT-PATIENT GRAND TOTAL % based on the total number of responses (3,692) % based on the total number of admissions (3,040)
1. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride(Shabu) 1,812 380 116 2,308 62.51 75.92
2. Cannabis (Marijuana) 767 136 89 992 26.87 32.63
3. Inhalants (Contact Cement, Adhesive) 156 10 9 175 4.74 5.76
4. Benzodiazepines (Diazepam) 41 14 3 58 1.57 1.91
5. Cocaine 37 13   50 1.35 1.64
6. Solvent 16   15 31 0.84 1.02
7. Nalbuphine Hydrochloride (Nubain) 25 3   28 0.76 0.92
8. MDMA (Ecstasy) 18 9   27 0.73 0.89

*  Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

PROFILE OF DRUG ABUSERS
(Facility Based)*
CY 2010

AGE : Mean age of 29 years
SEX : Ratio of male to female 9:1
CIVIL STATUS : Single 52.64%
STATUS OF EMPLOYMENT : Unemployed 33.73%
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT : College Level 29.54%
ECONOMIC STATUS : Average Monthly Family Income Php 17,545.14
PLACE OF RESIDENCE : Urban (Specifically NCR 43.75%)
DURATION OF DRUG - TAKING : More than six (6) years
NATURE OF DRUG - TAKING : Poly drug use**
DRUGS/SUBSTANCES OF ABUSE :
                                        Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Shabu)
                                        Cannabis (Marijuana)
                                        Inhalants (Contact Cement Adhesive)

*Residential and Out-Patient Facilities
**Poly drug users - abuse of more than one (1) drug

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS

       There were more male than female clients with a ratio of 9:1, with a mean age of 29 years old. The youngest center client was a 7 year old while the eldest was a 69 year old. The highest percentage belonged to age groups of 30 to 34 years old and 40 and above with 499 or 18.18%

       More than half of the center clients were single (52.64%) followed by married (28.31%), 11.62% had live in partners and 5.83% were separated prior to rehabilitation.

       As for educational attainment, 739 or 26.92% have reached high school level while 811 or 29.54% were able to reach college level.

       With regard to the status of employment, 33.73% were unemployed and 18.47% were either skilled or unskilled workers prior to their stay in the centers. Their average monthly family income is Php 17,545.14.

REPORTED CASES BY GENDER
(Facility Based)*
CY 2010

                                                   MALE             FEMALE     GRAND TOTAL
TYPE OF ADMISSION No. % No. % No. %
NEW ADMISSIONS 1,798 65.50 223 8.12 2,021 73.62
RE-ADMISSIONS 457 16.65 29 1.06 486 17.70
OUT-PATIENT 209 7.61 29 1.06 238 8.67
TOTAL 2,464 89.76 281 10.24 2,745 100.00

* Total Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities

DRUG ABUSE TREND: 2010 ANALYSIS

       For the year 2010, thirty-nine (39) residential treatment and three (3) outpatient facilities contributed data to the Integrated Drug Abuse Data and Information Network (IDADIN). These facilities reported a total 2,745 cases. Of this number, 73.62% or 2,021 were new admission, 17.70% or 486 were relapse cases and 8.67% or 238 were referrals from outpatient facilities.

       A 7.29% decrease was recorded from previous year. The decline may be due to the following reasons: people cannot afford the cost of treatment as most of the clients belong to the low income group; and the stereotype “denial syndrome” common among drug dependents, where they insist that they are in control of their drug-taking behavior and that any form of treatment. On the other hand, the intensified operations conducted by the law enforcement against pushers and drug traffickers may have contributed to the decline.

MOST COMMONLY USED/ABUSED DRUGS/SUBSTANCES
(Facility Based)*
CY 2010

DRUGS USED / ABUSED NEW ADMISSION RE-ADMISSION OUT-PATIENT GRAND TOTAL % based on the total number of responses (3,463) % based on the total number of admissions (2,745)
1. Methamphetamine Hydrochloride(Shabu) 1,354 423 152 1,929 55.70 70.27
2. Cannabis (Marijuana) 777 161 126 1,064 30.72 38.76
3. Inhalants (Contact Cement, Adhesive) 123 9 13 145 4.19 5.28
4. Benzodiazepines (Diazepam) 58 34 1 93 2.69 3.39
5. Cocaine 36 16 1 53 1.53 1.93
6. Cough / Cold Preparations 42 10   52 1.50 1.89
7. Nalbuphine Hydrochloride 41 8   49 1.41 1.79
MDMA (Ecstasy) 36 13   49 1.41 1.79
8. Solvent 7   1 8 0.23 0.29
9. Ketamine 4     4 0.12 0.15

* Total Reported Cases from Residential and Out-Patient Facilities


       Methamphetamine Hydrochloride commonly known as “shabu”, is still the most abused substance with reports of 1,929 cases, followed by Cannabis or Marijuana with 1,064 cases. Abuse of Contact Cement and other inhalants with 145 cases was also noted. The nature of drug taking remained to be poly-drug use The routes of administration are inhalation or sniffing and oral ingestion.